[CBQMTA] NGỮ PHÁP TIẾNG ANH HỌC PHẦN 1 HỆ CHẤT LƯỢNG CAO
GIÁO TRÌNH BUSINESS PARTNER
UNIT 1: FUTURE FORMS
Present Simple, Present Continuous and be going to.
1. Present simple:
– Thường được dùng cho những sự việc đã được lên kế hoạch và diễn ra thường xuyên
Ex: Zappos has a training session next week.
– Thường được dùng khi có mệnh đề chỉ thời gian (when, as soon as, until, etc)
Ex: The conference doesn’t start until 10 o’clock but let’s get there early.
2. Present Continuous:
– Thường được dùng để mô tả các kế hoạch hay buổi hẹn đã được sắp xếp, lên lịch từ
Ex: I’m flying to Las Vegas tomorrow
– Thường được sử dụng với những động từ chỉ sự chuyển động, đặc biệt là go và come,
thay cho be going to.
Ex: Make sure that you’re going to the meeting in Japan next time.
3. Be going to:
– Thường được sử dụng để chỉ các kế hoạch hay dự định có bằng chúng rõ ràng trong
tương lai, tuy nhiên các việc này có thể thay đổi.
Ex: You decide what you are going to contribute to the team.
Adding ideas (bổ sung ý):
As well as: cũng như
Our company should use marketing campaigns as well as public relations campaigns to improve the sales figures.
Also: cũng như
They have gained high sales figures and also customer loyalty.
In addition, Adj/Adv + S + V…: bên cạnh đó
In addition, technologies should be applied to improve product quality.
Contrasting ideas (ý kiến tương phản):
However, Adj/Adv + S + V…: tuy nhiên
(đứng đầu mệnh đề có ngăn cách dấu phẩy)
Initial response to our new product range has been positive. However, there is still a lot of work to do to reach our target.
Although + Adj/Adv + S + V…: mặc dù
(đứng đầu hoặc giữa hai mệnh đề)
I think she’s a great brand ambassador, although I don’t like her music very much.
While + Adj/Adv + S + V…: trong khi đó (thường chia động từ ở dạng tiếp diễn, đứng đầu hoặc giữa hai mệnh đề)
Certain luxury brands are popular in some countries, while different brands are popular in other markets.
Referring to time (liên quan đến mốc thời gian):
In recent years, earlier (this year), now, previously, recently, when
In recent years, Chinese customers have started to combine holidays abroad with shopping expeditions.
Giving examples (đưa ra các ví dụ):
Such as: như là (dùng để liệt kê)
There are many successful global luxury brands, such as Bulgari, Chanel and Hermes.
For example, for instance: ví dụ như
Our stores use new technologies, for instance, we have created an app that lets the assistant know when a loyal customer enters the store.
Sequencing (trình tự):
First of all: trước tiên
If you’d like to go into marketing, first of all, you should feel passionate about brands.
To start with (trước tiên), Then (sau đó):
The success of our brands is due to two factors. To start with, we have a well-designed, great product. Then we have the support of many, many loyal customers.
VERBS + ING VS INFINITIVE
Verbs + to-infinitive
afford, agree, arrange, attempt, claim, decide, demand, deserve, expect, fail, guarantee, hesitate, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, promise, seem, refuse, tend, would like
They have decided to sponsor the exhibition.
We’d like to invite you to our offices in Delhi to meet the team.
Verbs + Verbs-ing
avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, involve, justify, miss, postpone, practice, risk. suggest
He denied writing the email to the boss.
They postponed launching the new product for six months.
Verbs + preposition + Verbs-ing
apologize for, insist on, look forward to, put off, succeed, in
He apologized for arriving at the meeting late.
We look forward to seeing you soon.
Verbs + to Verbs/ Verbs-ing làm thay đổi ý nghĩa câu
forget, go on, remember, stop, try
I remember discussing modern art with you last month.
(nhớ chuyện đã làm rồi)
Please remember to bring this invitation with you.
(nhớ để làm chuyện gì đó)
She tried to write an email to apologize, but she couldn’t find the words.
(muốn làm gì đó nhưng không thể làm được)
She tried writing an email to apologize, but she still isn’t talking to her.
(chuyện đã làm những không như kế hoạch đã tính)
Verbs + to Verbs/ Verbs-ing không làm thay đổi ý nghĩa câu
begin, continue, hate, intend, like. love. prefer, start
They began arguing/ to argue the moment the meeting started.
DIRECT QUESTION VS INDIRECT QUESTION
Direct questions are the “normal” questions that can be used in not-so-formal situations such as conversations with friends, family, or people who we know well.
“Where’s the coke?”
“Where’s the bathroom?”
Direct questions can be open or closed. Closed questions have a yes/no answer, while open questions start with a question word or words, for example: what, who, when, when,…etc.
“Do you have any plans for the upcoming meeting?” (CLOSED)
“ Are you flexible with working hours?” ( CLOSED )
“ What does interest you in applying for this job?” ( OPEN )
Indirect questions tend to be more polite with people we don’t know very well, e.g. in an interview, or when a question is more difficult or challenging.
Ways of starting an indirect question:
Can/ Could you tell me/us …
Can you tell me how many people work in the department?
Could you tell me a little bit more about your weaknesses?
I’d like to know if/ wh-question word(s) …
I’d like to know what your strengths are.
We’d like to know if you have had experience in designing before.
Note: I’d/We’d like to know… does not need a question mark (?)
In closed questions, I’d/We’d like to know.. and Can/Could you tell me/us … are followed by if/whether, while in open questions they are followed by a question word or words.
I’d like to know if you provide any training. ( Do you provide any training?) (CLOSED)
Can/Could you tell me how long the training course will take? ( How long will the interview take?) (OPEN)
We’d like to know whether your working hours are flexible. (Are your working hours flexible?) (CLOSED)
I’d like to know what kind of training you provide. ( What kind of training do you provide?) (OPEN)
1. Must /Have to + infinitive:
– Hành động cần thiết và bắt buộc bao gồm luật, quy tắc, quy định
Ex: Companies must /have to pay 20 percent corporate tax in the UK.
– Tuy nhiên, have to thường được dùng cho các quy tắc bên ngoài (external rules) và must dùng cho sự bắt buộc ta tự đặt cho bản thân
I have to get to work early tomorrow. There’s a meeting at 9 o’clock.
I must get to work early every day. It’s when I get my best work done.
– Have to được sử dụng khi cần sử dụng một hình thức quá khứ, tương lai, hiện tại hoàn thành, động danh từ, nguyên mẫu.
We will have to cut prices in order to compete.
Did you have to do a test as part of the interview process?
The European Bank has had to lower interest rates again.
Having to work shifts at the hospital is not easy.
– Have to và Must có thể được dùng cho lời đề nghị, gợi ý mạnh.
You have to visit the National Portrait Gallery.
You must tell the hotel you want a room with a sea view.
2. Should/Shouldn’t + infinitive:
– Dùng để đưa ra gợi ý, đề xuất, đưa lời khuyên và ý kiến
If you ask me, we should catch the earlier train.
Should I call the supplier if they haven’t replied to my email?
We shouldn’t leave the air-con on when we leave the office. It’s a waste of energy.
3. Mustn’t + infinitive:
– Dùng để nói về việc gì đó bị cấm làm.
Ex: We mustn’t talk about a company strategy in public.
4. Don’t have to + infinitive:
– Dùng để nói về việc gì đó không cần thiết hay không bắt buộc phải làm nhưng bạn có thể làm nếu muốn
Ex: You don’t have to wear smart clothes but clean clothes are essential.
– Mustn’t và don’t have to có nghĩa hoàn toàn khác nhau:
– You mustn’t smoke anywhere in the building (điều này là không được phép)
– You don’t have to go outside to smoke here.( điều này là không cần thiết)
1. Comparative adjectives
– Short adjectives, add -er
Ex: bigger, smaller, higher, lower, etc.
Note: Có vài trường hợp ngoại lệ. Ex: good-better, bad-worse.
– Adjectives ending in -y, drop the -y and add -ier
Ex: wealthier, heavier, etc.
– Long adjectives, use more or less.
Ex: Local stories are offering a more limited range of products.
– Not as … as, to say that two things are not the same
Ex: The training session is not as interesting as I expected.
2. Emphasising comparisons:
– Sử dụng các từ: much, far, considerably, slightly, a bit trước một tính từ so sánh
Ex: The launch was far more difficult than we expected.
3. Comparing nouns: more, less, fewer, not as much/many…
Ex: The company wanted fewer out-of-town stories.